Mathematics, Science and Technology

Mathematics

6th Grade Mathematics
Sixth grade Mathematics follows the N.Y.S. curriculum, which includes number sense and operations, number systems, operations and estimation. The course is covers topics relating to Algebra, Geometry, Measurement, Statistics and Probability.

7th Grade Mathematics
Seventh grade Mathematics follows the N.Y.S. curriculum, which enhances instruction as related to number sense and operations, number systems, operations and estimation. The course is covers topics relating to Algebra, Geometry, Measurement, Statistics and Probability.

Pre Algebra
This Eighth grade Mathematics course is taught with an Emphasis on problem solving and the use of mathematical expressions and equations to effectively communicate ideas. Extensive time will be spent introducing methods of solving equations of one variable and investigating linear relationships. This course prepares students for entry and success in Algebra.

Algebra
This is a one-year course in algebra, which will build upon the concepts introduced in pre-algebra. Extensive time will be spent solving equations of one variable and investigating linear relationships. Solving multi variable problems using a system of equations will also be explored. Students will be required to read and interpret a variety of graphs representing mathematical equations and real-world problems. Emphasis will be placed on problem solving and the use of mathematical expressions and equations to effectively communicate ideas.

Geometry
Students will identify and justify geometric relationships. Extensive time will be devoted to formal proofs where students will be given some geometric figures and will then be required to develop a list of conjectured properties of the figure including a justification for each conjecture. Additionally, students will be required to state all necessary assumptions to complete the proof while presenting their findings in an organized manner. Emphasis will be placed on mathematical reasoning and effective communication. Algebra will be used to maintain proficiency but it will not be a point of emphasis.

Algebra and Trigonometry
Students will identify and justify mathematical relationships with particular emphasis placed on problem solving and graphing non-linear equations. Trigonometry will be used to investigate the relationships within triangles as well as to mathematically describe objects exhibiting wave, periodic or circular motion. Emphasis will be placed on mathematical reasoning and effective communication.

Pre-Calculus
Pre-Calculus is a more rigorous course than Algebra and Trigonometry. This course is designed to give students the necessary skills to be successful in calculus at the college level. Students will work extensively with polynomials relating equations to graphs to determine key points of interest. Emphasis is placed more on theory and less on problem solving. Additional topic will be selected based on enrollment.

Computer Mathematics

Computer Mathematics is a course taught in conjunction with both the Business Education and Mathematics departments that is designed to prepare students for the Mathematics and Financial Applications course.This course does qualify for math credit towards graduation, but offers no Regent exam credit. This course uses computer stations so that a hands on approach toward enhancing Mathematical skills can be accomplished. This course builds on Algebraic and Geometry applications.

Mathematics and Financial Applications
Mathematics and Financial Applications is a course taught in conjunction with both the Business Education and Mathematics departments that is designed to prepare students for life after high school. This course does qualify for math credit towards graduation, but offers no Regent exam credit. Students will work to improve math skills and develop an appreciation for factors affecting finance. Students will investigate investment returns and interest payments for loans, particularly credit cards and mortgages.

Science

Life Science
Life Science is a seventh grade course designed to have students learn about the living world, its inhabitants, and their interrelationships. The dependence of life forms on their internal and external environments is stressed. The course is designed to have students actively perform laboratory exercises which get students involved in the actual practice of science rather than the accumulation of knowledge.
This course addresses a biological curriculum through an emphasis of the local environment and current environmental issues through the N.Y.S. Learning Standards. As well, the development of the middle school student to become a more independent learner is stressed. These goals are accomplished through instruction in study skills, group work, and personal responsibility for meeting course requirements with the assistance of the teacher in areas of student need.

Physical Science
Physical Science is an eighth grade course designed to have students actively explore the relationships between the materials and forces of the universe. Practical application of natural phenomenon and their relevance to the student’s everyday world is stressed. The course is designed to have students actively perform laboratory exercises that get students involved in the actual practice of science rather than the sole accumulation of knowledge.
The course addresses a physical science curriculum through an emphasis of the local environment and current environmental issues in conjunction with the N.Y.S. Learning Standards. As well, the development of the middle school student to become a more independent learner is a course objective. These goals are through instruction in study skills, group work and personal responsibility for meeting course requirements with the assistance of the teacher in areas of student difficulty.

Physical Setting - Earth Science
Earth Science is a Regents level laboratory course designed to introduce students to the many facets of earth science through group instruction, laboratory work and the tremendous variety of resources available through the Internet. Practical application of natural phenomenon and their relevance of the student’s everyday world are stressed.
The course addresses the N.Y.S. Earth Science curriculum through an emphasis of the local environment and current environmental issues and the NY State standards. The development of personally appropriate study skills and time management is encouraged in each student.

Living Environment - Biology
This Grade 10 course is designed to instill an appreciation of the environment, an understanding of ecological principals and the historical discoveries that led up to modern biological understandings. It is coupled with 30 hours of laboratory work to observe many of the biological principals taught in the classroom. Most importantly, the course will prepare students for more advanced biology courses in college, and possibly a career in the field.

Physical Setting - Chemistry
This course reflects the learning standards, key ideas, and performance indicators are proscribed by the New York State Education Department. It also includes historical development of modern chemistry with contributions by Boyle, Democritus, Rutherford, Mendeleyev, the Curies, and other pioneer researchers. This study of matter includes atomic structure, the periodic table, stoichiometry, bonding, solutions, kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases, organic chemistry, electrochemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Students will learn how to use scientific data to solve more intricate problems. Included with the theoretical aspects is a minimum of thirty hours of laboratory work. Students will become familiar with chemical techniques and lab safety, leading to the administration of the Regent exam at course conclusion.

Environmental Science
Environmental Science is a course that focuses on local and national environmental issues and their importance of the individual student. The goal of the course is active learning. Basic principles of science introduced in earlier years are reinforced and extended through personal and group projects that students select and refine during the course of the year. The course encourages the students to utilize the full range of technology and local resources at Bolton Central School and the community at large.

Physical Setting - Physics
Physics is the study of the physical world from the laws governing the celestial bodies to those that govern the intricate workings of the atoms. There is extensive work interpreting readings, equations, and graphs. Emphasis is placed on problem solving, critical thinking, effective communication, and criticism. Students are expected to use algebraic expressions as well as verbal arguments to explain concepts. This course has a laboratory requirement. Prerequisites: Strong algebra skills and a basic knowledge of trigonometry.

Technology Education

World of Technology
The World of Technology course is offered at the high school level. Each student will be provided with opportunities to become engaged in critical thinking as they develop solutions to real world problems. In the hands-on/minds-on laboratory, students will address the Math, Science and Technology standards by performing many technology learning activities. Some of these include tall towers, properties of polymers, black box motion devices, corrugated chair design, crazy for coasters and more. This course is approved by the N.Y.S. Education Department to meet a Science credit, required for graduation.

Creativity and Innovation
This course will explore famous inventors/inventions and styles throughout modern history. After learning historic styles, students will be engaged in the design process to sense problems and challenges that they will describe in a design brief. Students will then try to solve the problem using formalized design methods. Sketching, illustrating and model-making skills will be taught during this class at the Grade 10 level.

Manufacturing Systems
Manufacturing Systems is a course designed to provide an orientation to mass production through research and development of a saleable product. Students organize financial and management functions needed to successfully market a product. The use of tools and machines will also be taught.

Drawing and Design for Production
This course involves visual problem solving and technical drawing application. The rationale for this course is to give students the knowledge for understanding design methods and drawing knowledge needed for production planning and design. Students study and learn the use of conventional drafting techniques and then use this knowledge to learn CAD (computer assisted drafting) applications. The course may be used to meet Art/Music requirement for graduation.

Energy Systems
Energy Systems is a design-oriented course presenting alternative energy resources and systems as a focus of classroom research activities. Topics include design development, modeling, prototype construction and testing of energy systems and theories. Typical study areas investigate applications of energy systems and including solar design or buildings, photovoltaic, wind, and other alternative energy options and devices.

Materials Processing
This course involves the in-depth study of all types of materials used today in the industry for manufacturing. In this course, each student is involved in a detailed project made from a raw material. Students work in wood, metals and some plastics. The extensive use of tools is taught in this class

Transportation Systems
The development of transportation systems throughout the world has a tremendous impact on the intellectual and economic growth of societies. Transportation systems allow people to move not only themselves, but also durable and non-durable goods in increasingly fast and efficient ways. In this course of study, students explore the transportation industry of today and explore innovations for tomorrow.
The course incorporates three of the major areas of transportation and provides students with the awareness of job opportunities available to them in the transportation arena.

Construction Systems
Construction Systems is designed to expose students to most areas of residential construction. Areas to be included are site preparations; foundations; framing; roofing; openings; windows and doors; plumbing; and basic electrical. A great deal of emphasis is placed on the safe use of basic construction tools and machines. Students will build a basic building during class.

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